The presentation covers steps leading to achieve a highly productive (low skin) frac pack completion. To this effect, it focuses on the long strides that have been taken to address critical but simple subjects that effectively lower skin — proper fluid selection, the correct calibration treatment analysis, and the proper design of the slurry schedule. Merging field observations to analytical and numerical solutions yields this goal. A field example — Canyon Express Project – exemplifies the how to do steps.
In particular the presentation addresses:
- The design of fracturing fluids for soft formation where cooldown, fluid velocities and fluid exposure times are important.
- The use of the "equilibrium" method to fine-tune the closure pressure (and fluid efficiency) evaluation.
- The cleaning and packing of perforations not aligned with the fracture.
The use of diversion techniques to pack the entire reservoir.