Time-lapse (or 4D) seismic is well on its way to becoming an integral part of reservoir management in several large oil companies, particularly in the North Sea. Successful published case studies have demonstrated that the geophysical, engineering, and economic challenges facing 4D seismic can, and have, been overcome, largely through better understanding of 4D seismic fundamentals and utilization of fit-for-purpose seismic acquisition and processing. Many of these studies also describe how reservoir management has benefited from 4D seismic. The author brings his reservoir engineering perspective and 4D seismic experience together to present 4D fundamentals, business drivers, challenges, case studies, workflows, and economics, along with ample time for questions and discussion.
* Define terms and fundamentals of 4D
* Discuss the business drivers for 4D, focusing on reservoir management impact
* Explore the economics of 4D seismic
* Review selected 4D case histories (a 4D bibliography will be in handout)
* Describe the 4D workflow from feasibility through integration of results
* Illustrate different levels of 4D feasibility used to determine whether 4D will work
* Describe the integration of 4D results with reservoir simulation